When to plant sunflower

Date: 06.10.2018, 01:14 / View: 92392

Cultivation of sunflower engaged more Indians who used seeds to relieve chest pain and treat fever. In the fields of our country, the culture of the Compositae family is grown mainly for the production of vegetable oil. In this review, we consider the main points of planting, care and technology of agrotechnics when growing plants in open ground.

Table of contents The timing of planting sunflower at the cottage in open ground

The cultivation of sunflower provides seed method of planting. Apply seedling sowing does not make any sense, because the grains are kept spring frosts without risk to the future harvest. Some gardeners living in the northern regions, manage to grow oilseed with the help of seedlings (seedlings). Seeding is carried out in prepared pots or plastic bottles without a bottom, in order to transfer shoots to the garden of the summer cottage together with the earth clod. This allows you to save a poorly developed root system. If it is damaged, the plant may not settle down in a new place. Modern high-oily varieties of sunflower are sown when the soil warms up to +10 degrees by depth of 5 cm Modern vysokomaslichnye varieties of sunflower sown when the soil warms up to +10 degrees at a depth of 5 cm

The term of sowing begins in late April or early May. Seeds of high-grade sorts of sunflower sprout well and germinate when the soil warms to 8-10 ° C. Sunflower unpretentious to the conditions of cultivation, the temperature up to minus 5 ° just appeared shoots can easily withstand. The most popular varieties for the Moscow region, St. Petersburg and other regions

Variety of varieties complicates the process of selecting seeds. When buying you need to focus on the popularity of varieties and climate features. Getting a good harvest is more likely with proven varieties of sunflower. This culture is grown in suburban areas, as in the Moscow region, St. Petersburg and in the southern regions. What sort of plant, decide for yourself. Tunka Tunka Sunflower Tunka Sunflower

The hybrid is characterized by high productivity, resistance to drought and disease (white rot, ash rot, fomozom, fomopsisu). Not afraid of the plant and weeds (clover). Sunflower mid-ripening period, the growing season lasts 110-120 days. The height of the stem with a basket is 140-150 cm. The variety is recommended for cultivation in the steppes and forest-steppe zones. Jason Sunflower Jason Sunflower Jason

Three-line hybrid with a growing season of 100-110 days. The height of the stem reaches 165-170 cm. Strong immunity contributes to resistance to white and gray rot, Phomopsis. Seeds contain a high rate of oil - up to 55%. Productivity makes 39-41 c / hectare. Sanai Sunflower Sanai Sanai Sunflower

The hybrid of the Dutch selection differs in resistance to herbicides. Feature of the variety is the low requirements for the cultivation of the soil. Technical ripeness occurs within 100-110 days after emergence of shoots on the soil surface. The content of oils in seeds is about 55%. It is not recommended to sow in the fields where there were flashes of Fomopsis. Buzuluk Buzuluk Sunflower Buzuluk Sunflower

Early ripe variety with a growing season of about 85 days. 54% oil. Plant height - up to 168 cm. The variety Buzuluk is stable under different climatic conditions, drought-resistant. This is a sort of intensive direction, it requires high-quality agrotechnology and the use of fertilizers. The technology of sowing sunflower at the dacha

For planting sunflower need to choose areas with such predecessors: corn, cereals. And from the place where tomatoes were cultivated, beets, legumes should be abandoned. Seed preparation Before planting, sunflower seeds are sorted and soaked in a solution of manganese Before planting, sunflower seeds are sorted and soaked in a solution of manganese

Seed material must be properly prepared before planting. The process involves sorting (selection of large healthy seeds) and soaking for 14 hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. To accelerate germination and obtain friendly shoots, the nuclei are processed with growth biostimulants. Fungicides and insecticides can be added to the solution to increase the resistance of young shoots to diseases and pests. Soil preparation

Before sowing a sunflower, you should seriously consider choosing a site for planting. The culture needs the sun, so the place should be well lit and ventilated. The ideal option is fertile soil with a small amount of clay. However, the plant can adapt to any environment, with the exception of acidic, saline and marshy. Soil for planting sunflower after cereal crops and maize will fit just perfect The soil for planting sunflower after grain crops and maize will fit just perfect

It is better to study the preparation of the site at the dacha in the fall, carefully removing all plant residues from it and digging the shovels to the depth of the bayonet. Simultaneously with digging mineral fertilizers should be introduced. Sowing patterns and embedment depth

Let's figure out how to sow a sunflower and what is the optimal embedment depth? It is necessary to plant the seeds in a moist soil to a depth of 6-8 cm. 2-3 seeds should be laid in each nest. When planting large varieties of plants, an interval of at least 1 m is observed; for medium-sized varieties, a distance of 60 cm is considered acceptable. The more space between holes, the larger will be the nuclei of the new crop. When plants are planted in a row, the distance between them is not should be less than 30 cm When plants are planted in a row, the distance between them should not be less than 30 cm

Many gardeners are puzzled how to arrange the planting of sunflower. Some have adapted to plant the plant along the fence (leave 65-75 cm between the holes, at least 30 cm from the fence). However, it is necessary to clarify that the fence should be in the form of a grid, so as not to create shading. As an option, plant a sunflower between the beds of cucumbers or other vegetable crops that get along well with each other (the square-nesting method of 50x70 cm will do). Landing along the path is considered to be no less interesting (the distance between the holes is 70 cm) Proper care of seedlings and agricultural technology

In order for the seeds in the baskets to be large, it is necessary to make some efforts: to provide with irrigation, to feed in a timely manner, to loosen the soil and remove weeds, to carry out inter-row cultivation. Periodic treatments of the plantation to prevent diseases and pests will be a good addition. Watering Rules

Irrigation of fields or beds with sunflower should be regularly before forming 4 pairs of leaves on a young sprout. Further watering is carried out as needed. Increase water consumption or increase the frequency of its introduction into the soil should be in the period of development of inflorescences and seed filling. The sunflower must be watered every day The sunflower must be watered every day

The soil is soaked with moisture to the depth of the roots. In hot weather, irrigation is carried out daily. If a prolonged high temperature is established with a low level of air humidity, then watering the beds or fields should be several times a day. This will help form large nuclei. Feeding

To grow and get a good harvest, sunflower needs regular feeding. The first is made after the formation of the third pair of sheets. Superphosphate is used as a fertilizer (20-40 g per 1 m2). It is scattered on the ground, after which they are buried to a depth of 10 cm and watered. Increase productivity and accelerate the development of sunflowers mineral and organic fertilizers will promote Increase in productivity and acceleration of sunflower development will be promoted by mineral and organic fertilizers

The second feed is made after the formation of the basket. At this stage, potash-nitrogen fertilizers are more suitable (a tablespoon of potassium sulfate is added to a bucket of solution of mullein). When ripe seeds use the same composition.

If blistering deformities appear on the leaves of the plant, and cracking on the stem, this is a signal of boron deficiency. Spraying with boron fertilizer should be carried out. Pests and Prevention

Failure to comply with the rules of agricultural technology threatens the harvest. The greatest problems arise in case of detection of the disease. Among the most dangerous are the following fungal infections. Downy mildew (peronosporosis) is characterized by the following features: fading leaves, stalk thinning, white scurf on the underside of foliage. If the culture is infected twice in one season, another symptom is added - small oily spots on the leaves. When a fungus develops in the active phase, the basket is damaged, as a result of which it ceases to develop. Often, plants are affected by black spot, which is recognized by dark necrotic spots, expanding over time to 4-5 cm. Other signs indicate infection: numerous cracks in the place of attachment of the stem to the stem, dark spots on the stem of an elongated shape. Gray spot affects almost the entire plant, forming dark spots of angular form with a gray contour on the leaves, petioles, stems. Over time, parts of the plant dry up and fall off. In bacteriosis, plant tissues rot, become covered with mucus. If you do not process the culture, it will wither and dry. Bacteriosis Bacteriosis  Fake powdery mildew Fake powdery mildew  Gray Spot Gray Spot  Black Spot Black Spot

To combat fungal diseases, fungicides of systemic action are used: Kruiser, Apron. If a viral infection is detected, the affected plants must be removed from the bed and disposed of.

Insect parasites can also harm crops: Steppe crickets attack the plant at the stage of the formation of the first leaves, destroy the growing point; weevil - parasites have a snack on the stem of young shoots, seed leaves are eaten away, sprouts that have not yet appeared on the ground surface feed; meadow moths - the larvae are voracious, eat almost completely the leaf part of the culture, destroy the epidermis in baskets and stalks; gnawing moths - insects at the caterpillar stage eat up a stalk at the root zone; May beetle - parasite larvae damage the plant root system. Gnawing moth Gnawing moth  Weevil Weevil  The larva of the May beetle The larva of the May beetle  Meadow moth Meadow moth  Steppe cricket Steppe cricket

In order to combat insect pests are used insecticides: Akarin, Volley, Agrovertin, Aktellik. It is impossible to delay the treatment, parasites can carry incurable viral infections. Harvesting

Sunflower crops begin to be harvested when the plant reaches full maturity. Basket and leaves dry up, become brown (brown) color. Mature sunflower seeds accumulate a sufficient amount of oil, the kernels become hard, and the rind acquires a shade corresponding to the variety. Estimated and all planted field as a whole. If the indicator of the remaining plants with yellow petals does not exceed 15%, the harvest time begins.

It is necessary not to overdo the sunflower, otherwise the seeds will spontaneously crumble out of the baskets.

The culture contains minerals and vitamins that are beneficial for the body, and essential oils. It is possible to use sunflower seeds both in the culinary purposes, and medical. When landing on large areas, you can replenish stocks of vegetable oil for the winter. It is absolutely not difficult to master the agrotechnology of growing sunflower.

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