The garden what should be

Date: 23.09.2018, 11:50 / View: 94493

The garden bed is the basis of the garden, the harvest, the spent forces and the time for cultivation and agrotechnics of growing crops depend on it. Thinking about how to arrange the beds on the site correctly and conveniently, it is important to take into account a set of factors: location and terrain, climate, ground characteristics, the side of the world and a number of other factors. Study in advance the theoretical aspects to avoid problems in practice and increase the yield of each hundred.

The content of the article

Basic rules for creating beds

In order to optimize garden works, before starting field work, it is necessary:

  • determine the types of vegetables that will be grown, as well as their number;
  • use the special tables to calculate the required area;
  • draw up a plan for the plot and the layout of the beds on it. Vegetable beds

    Proper beds are functional and beautiful

    Such simple preparation will help to avoid unnecessary labor and, probably, will allow to allocate on the territory a place for rest, or fruit and berry crops.

    Area and location of the site

    To determine the necessary area of ​​the garden first of all, decide whether you will grow vegetables only for the family, or even for sale. Kurdyumov NI, the author of the book "The Encyclopedia of the Smart Summerman", claims that a family of five will have enough 90 km of landings, without taking into account the paths between them. It uses ridges with a width of 0.5 m with wide apertures of 1 m, that is, the area occupied by about 4 hectare.

    It is not necessary to rely on other people's advice. Using special tables, calculate the annual demand for vegetables per family, as well as the necessary area for their growing. To save space, and also increase the yield, grow such crops as cucumbers, tomatoes, beans and the like on trellis, or tie them. The need for vegetables

    Table of the needs of vegetables and the area of ​​their growing

    After calculating the size of the garden, go to its location on the plan. Here, consider:

    • Grow vegetables on the southern side of the cottage, there is more sunlight and the land is warming up better;
    • trees and buildings should not obscure the garden, place them on the north side of it;
    • the relief of the allotment should be as flat as possible, if this can not be achieved, take care of the drainage grooves in the low places, or think about the terraced garden. Site plan with beds

      Example plot layout on paper

      The form of the allotment for growing vegetables can be any, do not focus on standard rectangles. However, consider that during processing it is undesirable to walk between plantations, so do not make the beds too large. Ideally, if standing on the path, you can process the plantations across the entire width or at least more than half.

      If the homestead area is small, provide for high, vertical or multi-level planting. They are especially popular for growing strawberries, strawberries, spicy herbs. Keep in mind that vertical structures with perennials are better to be made mobile to be able to hide them for the winter, otherwise the vegetables can freeze. Beds on several levels

      Non-standard multi-level beds

      Rules and features of the layout

      A serious approach to growing vegetables requires a little preparation and competent layout of beds in the garden and their location.

      1. Prepare a separate notebook where you will write down how to distribute the beds on the site.
      2. Put a cottage plan in the notebook, mark the location of the ridges on it.
      3. Number the ridges.
      4. On a blank sheet, write the sowing year and the numbering of islets with the crops that you will grow.

        Such a notebook and the scheme will serve for many years, preserving important for the gardener information. It helps to navigate between crops, adhere to the seed and select the right neighbors, which is extremely important even for a small area. After all, non-observance of the crop rotation of vegetables and ignoring their compatibility threatens the depletion of soil and a significant reduction in yield.

        For convenience, Sevosmen conditionally divide the territory into four zones, where you will grow crops with different requirements for nutrient soil, as well as perennials.

        • Very demanding - cabbage, cucumbers, pumpkin, potatoes, garlic.
        • Average demanding - onions, carrots, beets, lettuce, spinach, kohlrabi, radish, pepper, potatoes, melon.
        • Undemanding - a family of legumes.
        • Perennials - strawberries, strawberries, rhubarb, perennial spicy herbs. High beds

          Proper layout facilitates crop rotation

          Introducing the outline of the garden plan, do not forget to note the location of the compost heap. If you do not want to spoil the appearance of the landscape, put a composter. The remains of plants and other organics, folded here, are processed better than in the usual heap. To enhance the effect of rotting, use special bacteriological additives.

          Planning a summer house on the slope

          The location of the villa on the slope is not an obstacle for the cultivation of garden crops. Professional advice of experts will facilitate this process:

          • Arrange ridges across the slope, this will reduce erosion.
          • On a slope up to 50 slopes, place vegetable crops in the upper part of the slope. At the bottom plant shrubs or make high beds, with excessive soil moisture there.
          • On the slope of the slope above 5,10 equip the terraces, on which already place the planting. The recommended ratio of their length and width for this arrangement is 4: 1 or 5: 1.
          • On a slope with a steepness above 70, make ditches up to 20 cm deep in the middle of the garden and 1 m from the edge of the terrace. This will additionally protect the soil from erosion. Beds on the slope

            Terraced vegetable garden

            Creating new beds

            Modern gardeners are very popular with raised or deep fenced plantations. They are easier to handle, you can use special earth mixtures with a properly selected composition, it is easier to calculate the required amount of fertilizers, and a fine mesh net at the bottom will save from rodents. Make these beds "warm" and collect two crops a year, because the vegetables will mature for a couple of weeks faster.

            If you plan the location of the garden on an untilled virgin land, use one of the methods:

            1. Remove the turf layer, but do not discard it, but grind it and send it to compost. Ogolisheyusya ground dig, if possible, add a new fertile soil. The edges are fixed with bumps.
            2. Less time consuming method: dig a place for the garden and plant it with potatoes. The amount of weeds will decrease significantly, but do not expect a generous harvest in the first year.
            3. Make elevated ridges: dig a place under a vegetable garden or simply tread (grass) the grass. Equip the sides of the desired height. At the bottom put branches, thick stems of plants, cardboard, paper, pour over quickly overtaken organic and soil. In dry climatic conditions, such ridges should be deepened into the ground. Setting the beds

              Creation of elevated "warm" beds

              There is a wide variety of techniques for the arrangement of beds:

              • high - very popular with American farmers;
              • mantel;
              • using the Mitlayer method;
              • multi-tiered and others.

                In each case, be sure to place the edges at the edges, this prevents the sprawl of the soil and prevents the spread of weeds from the tracks on them. For bordering, purchase ready-made garden borders or use any available materials:

                • A tree, pretreat it with an antiseptic;
                • concrete;
                • plastic;
                • metal;
                • brick;
                • Slate.

                  Be sure to observe the order of planting beds, marked in your plan with location. To save space and increase yield, plant new plants on the areas that have been freed after harvesting the precursors. So you can grow not only vegetables with a short vegetation period, but also, for example, potatoes, if you dig out his young.

                  Parameters of the beds are a bit of geometry and mathematics

                  Professional gardeners are advised to abandon the traditional continuous planting of land in favor of some fairly narrow beds with wide paths. They say that the yield of crops in such a garden is higher, because, due to the well-thought-out arrangement, the illumination of each plant considerably increases. In addition, correctly selected landing parameters make it easy to care for them. Passages between beds

                  Convenient wide passages are mandatory

                  How to calculate the optimal width

                  The recommended optimal width of beds in the garden is different in different sources. The only thing on which all farmers agree is that it should be such that it is easy to process vegetables without going into the soil.

                  Thus, the width of the last strip should not exceed 1 m. Between the plantings, it is necessary to have passages with an optimal width of 90-100 cm. Already the distance between the beds should not be done, because the sprawling tops of plants will significantly reduce this area.

                  Are also popular narrow beds on Mitlajderu. This American farmer developed an "ideal garden" system, according to which ridges 45 cm wide alternate with passages of 90 cm. Plants planted by this method receive a maximum of sunlight and are well ventilated. These factors together with a balanced feeding guarantee a high yield even in the absence of good weather conditions. Layout of beds in the greenhouse

                  Location in greenhouses

                  What should be the ideal length

                  The ideal recommended length varies greatly among different specialists. So, the length of the bed along Mitlajder is 9 m. Domestic gardeners make them smaller, the standard size of the bed is 3 m, sometimes 4.5 m, 6 m.

                  Pay more attention not to the extent, but to ensure that all the tapes are the same size, it will greatly simplify the care of crops. However, some amateurs ignore this point, creating whole sets of landings of different lengths, thus enriching the design of the site. Non-standard shape beds

                  The original approach to the form

                  What height to choose

                  The height depends on the climatic conditions and the features of the soil on the site. On light sandy loam soil it is not necessary to lift the planting, especially if the climate is arid. High beds are warming up better, but they also dry up faster, so they will require frequent watering. "Warm" beds in such conditions make a deeper, but not elevated.

                  Heavy clay soils, especially in places that are often flooded with water, or with a close groundwater table, require elevated structures. The optimum height for processing is 40 cm, but sometimes they are made even higher - 60-70 cm.

                  On small plots, it is possible to arrange a garden at different levels. At the same time, make the lowest plantings on the southern side, gradually increasing their height, so the plants will not shade each other. Upgraded beds

                  Elevated beds are convenient in processing

                  High beds have several advantages:

                  • convenient watering;
                  • water does not stagnate;
                  • do not need hilling;
                  • If mulching, we do not need weeding;
                  • do not need to dig, enough to loosen 7 to 10 cm;
                  • early planting of vegetables is possible;
                  • it's easy to make a crop rotation;
                  • When planting it is not necessary to add fertilizers to the hole;
                  • when intelligent use of organic matter, there is no need for inorganic fertilizers;
                  • You can use forever.

                    Arrangement of beds relative to the sides of the world

                    Experts recommend the design of beds in the garden, taking into account the features of the site, the climatic factor and orientation to the sides of the world. Given the latter, many often violate the standard location along or across the site, replacing it with an oblique or diagonal arrangement of beds with respect to the sun. Unusual and aesthetic imperfection of such an arrangement is compensated by a number of advantages.

                    What gives an accurate calculation

                    The correct orientation of plantings contributes to:

                    • reducing the number of diseased and underdeveloped plants;
                    • uniform crop coverage;
                    • reduce the frequency of irrigation;
                    • increase yield by 10-15%;
                    • reducing the maturation of certain crops for 3-5 days. Seeds in the open area

                      Orientation from north to south with prevalence of overcast days

                      In addition, some truck farmers say that vegetables grown with the right direction of planting are better kept.

                      Features of the layout for different regions

                      Recommendations on how to properly place beds: from north to south or from west to east, differ for different climatic conditions.

                      Thus, residents of northern and central regions, where there is less sunlight and more cloudy days, and also with insufficient heat and excess moisture, are advised to orient the plantations from north to south. The plants planted in this way will not shade each other.

                      The fences in the southern hot and dry regions need beds oriented from west to east. With this planting, the earth is shaded between the rows, so it dries less and, in addition, the negative effect of overheated soil decreases. Experiments of farmers show that in conditions of lack of rainfall, the yield of corn sown in this way was 20-25% higher than that that grew in rows from north to south.

                      The location of beds on the sides of the world is not always justified. The presence of strong permanent winds in the region or the location of the site at an angle significantly correct this scheme. So, the negative effect of dry winds on plants is compensated by planting across the direction of the air streams. In this case, plantations are less dried and retain more carbon dioxide, which promotes photosynthesis. Rounds on an uneven plot are made only across the slope. Mitlayer Bed

                      Mitlajder location scheme

                      Paths between beds

                      The width of the paths between the beds is described above (not less than 90 cm), but it is important not only to correctly calculate the parameters of this zone, but also to arrange the passes to exclude weeds. This can be both capital walkways and temporary decks. Such decking not only hinders the growth of weeds, but also makes gardener work more convenient.

                      What to do garden paths

                      What to put between the beds, so as not to grow grass:

                      • wide boards or flooring of narrow boards, knocked down for strength in a single line;
                      • sheets of fiberboard;
                      • ruberoid;
                      • Mulch from sawdust, hay, grass from lawn. It is important to remember that fresh sawdust oxidizes the soil;
                      • a mound of pebbles, rubble, broken bricks - such paths between the beds are very decorative and adorn the landscape;
                      • old linoleum;
                      • cardboard boxes. The path from the spills

                        Spila of a tree

                        If the location of the landings does not change and the paths always remain in place, it makes sense to make the capital tracks. The most reliable coating between beds from weeds is concrete. Concrete passages can be monolithic, under an artificial stone or under a tile.

                        You can also lay out the tracks with tiles and not only concrete. Very nice looks rubber tiles, in addition, it does not slip, which makes the travel of the summer resident safe.

                        Spectacularly look through the passes, adorned with the sprees of trees, but between the cuts the grass will still grow, unless the recommendations below are followed. Gravel Paths

                        Capital Approach

                        How to prevent germination of weeds

                        This method is suitable for making permanent passes, that is, for those who do not plan to change the arrangement of beds.

                        How to make paths between beds so that weeds do not grow:

                        1. Having worked out a clear plan for the garden, mark the passages.
                        2. Remove the top layer of soil in the aisles. If the beds are raised or with high curbs, you can not remove.
                        3. Lay cardboard, layers of paper, rags, black film for beds or geotextiles - special material from grass.
                        4. Cover with sand or sawdust.
                        5. From above make a firm and rain-resistant coating, for example, covered with pebbles or broken bricks. Groats Hills

                          Grodki-hills, located with a complex of factors

                          As a result, capital passages will be obtained, on which nothing will grow. In the case of re-planning, all this must be removed and the passages filled with fertile soil.

                          To understand how to place beds on the site and how to close the tracks from the weeds, do not have to spend a lot of time. Consider the climatic conditions of the region, the side of the world, the features of the ground and the terrain, and the development of well-known farmers and, as a result, collect good harvests without unnecessary expenditure of energy, energy and time for processing.