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Rhododendrons in the open ground

Rhododendrons in the open ground

Date: 16.10.2018, 06:42 / View: 84254


"Luxurious, fabulous, garden aristocrat" - rhododendron deserves these words of admiration by right. At the same time, the stereotype is stable that this plant is complex and unsuitable for Central Russia - it freezes in winter, it burns and blooms badly in spring. But these problems are solvable. You need to choose the appropriate variety and take into account the specifics of this plant. Popular species and varieties

Rhododendrons are plants of forest highlands with a humid climate and soil. They grow in North America, Southeast Asia, and Europe. In our country - the Far East, the Caucasus, Siberia are the birthplace of known species. Most rhododendrons belong to evergreen species, a smaller part of them - to deciduous. Deciduous species

Beginners should start with deciduous rhododendrons. They are unpretentious and winter-hardy. Since in the fall they shed their leaves, they will have no problems with spring burning. Deciduous species are very decorative - the leaves are green in the summer, and in the fall they become a beautiful golden-purple color. Rhododendron yellow Rhododendron yellow

Rhododendron yellow

This species comes from the Caucasus and is characterized by a high degree of winter hardiness. Forms bushes in height and in diameter up to 1.5-2 m. Leaves are oval 5-10 cm long. It blooms in May-June with yellow very fragrant flowers. Japanese Rhododendron Japanese Rhododendron

Japanese Rhododendron

It also tolerates the harsh Russian winters. Plant height is 1-1.5 m. It blooms annually in May-June. Flowers of different shades of orange. Rhododendron Vazea Vazei Rhododendron

Rhododendron vazeus

The height of the bushes 1-1,2 m. Abundant flowering. In May they begin to bloom, covering the whole bush, pink flowers, small to 3 cm. Evergreen species Rhododendron Yakushiman Yakushiman rhododendron

Rhododendron Yakushiman

A very popular short and compact species originally from Japan. Evergreen bushes do not exceed 1 m. Suitable for rock gardens and small gardens. Blossoming is plentiful and long from May to June. Flowers can change color in the flowering process. In the famous variety Kokhiro Wada, pink-purple buds are first formed, and then white flowers bloom. In Kalinka, the flowers gradually change color to different shades of pink. Rhododendron of Katevbinsk Rhododendron of Katevbinsky

Rhododendron katevbinsky

Tall look. Spreading bushes reach 1.5-1.7 m. It blooms in late spring for more than 3 weeks. The time-tested varieties are still popular: red “Nova Zembla”, lilac “Grandiflorum”, white “Album Novum”. Short-fruited rhododendron Short-fruited rhododendron

Rhododendron short-fruited

His homeland is the Far East. Plant height depending on the variety can be from 0.5 m to 2 m. The flowering time is from June to July. Winter-hardy varieties: Raisa, compact up to 1 m, with pinkish-crimson flowers, pink University of Helsinki, up to 1.5 m high, up to 2.5 m high, Pekka with pink flowers, and white Peter Tigerstad. Rhododendron Smirnova Rhododendron Smirnova

Rhododendron Smirnova

Originally from the Caucasus. In nature it grows up to 6 m, cultivated varieties up to 1-1.5 m. Natural survivor, can live up to 50 years. Bushes with sprawling crown and dark green above and whitish below with long leaves. It blooms from late May and all June with pink-red flowers, gathered in dense inflorescences. The choice of space on the site

The successful cultivation of rhododendrons is in choosing the right place, preparing the soil and planting properly.

Deciduous rhododendrons need a lot of light, in the shade they will grow, but it doesn’t bloom. Evergreen species require shading from the midday sun. But all rhododendrons need protection from the drying wind. For planting fit places near buildings or fence, tall trees or shrubs. Shrubs have so that in the winter on them from the roof of the house did not fall snow. Rhododendrons have superficial roots, so neighbors of rhododendrons should not have trees with the same root structure - birch, linden, willow, maple, chestnut, spruce. Oak, larch, pine will not interfere with rhododendrons - their roots grow deep into, as well as fruit trees - apples, pears, cherries. Required soil

Rhododendrons grow on acidic and loose soils that allow air and moisture to pass through well. The plant though loves water, but does not tolerate its stagnation. The level of acidity should be in the range of 4.5-5.5 pH. If the soil in the area is sandy or loamy, then for deoxidation and improvement of the structure, high-moor peat, rotted needles, crushed bark and a bit of humus and compost are added. Planting in open ground

For 2-3-year-old bushes, planting pits with a diameter and a depth of 30 cm are prepared. For adult plants, pits 60 cm in diameter and 40 cm deep are being dug. At the bottom of the planting holes, drainage is arranged - pieces of broken red brick or coarse gravel are laid, shed with water, then poured the prepared loose substrate. In the usual garden land or in the clean peat is not planted. The soil is prepared from a mixture of garden land with peat, rotted needles, sand, a small part of the compost or humus.

The substrate is poured over with water, so that it is a little ass. Before planting, the roots are immersed in water and kept until the formation of air bubbles stops. Rhododendron is planted in the ground at the level of the root collar, and after planting the bush is watered and mulched with a mixture of peat, sand and crushed pine bark. Care Watering

Rhododendrons are moisture-loving. At the beginning of the growing season and in the summer they are watered plentifully, using soft water. Irrigation mode is established, focusing on weather conditions and the drying of the soil around the plant. The optimum summer irrigation rate is 1 time in 5-7 days in the amount of 10-15 liters of water per adult plant. If it is very hot, then water more often. In late summer and early autumn, watering is reduced to 1 time in 10-12 days.

Once a month it is useful to water the plants with acidified water. The easiest way is to use oxalic or citric acid for acidification (1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water). Feeding

The first feeding of rhododendrons is carried out in the spring, when heat is established. It is necessary for the awakening of the plant and for flowering. The second time - after flowering, in late June-early July. It stimulates the growth of young shoots and budding for the next year. A third nitrogen-free feed will help the plant prepare for winter. It is carried out in September.

It is better to fertilize with ready-made mineral mixtures, whose composition is balanced and contains all the necessary elements. Trimming

In rhododendrons, cut dry, broken, frozen or diseased shoots. In early spring, until the plant finally woke up, they cut too long shoots that violate the shape of the bush. Pruning should not get involved, it can affect flowering. Faded inflorescences are removed immediately after flowering. So the plant will not only look neat, but also begin to spend forces on the formation of new shoots and inflorescences. transplant

Due to the superficial fibrous root system, the plant can be transplanted at any age. The best time for transplantation is spring before the start of active growth. Transplantation can also be carried out in the summer after flowering or early autumn. Until the cold bushes will have time to get stronger and get used to a new place. Shelter for the winter

Experts advise not to risk and cover rhododendrons for the winter, regardless of their degree of winter hardiness. Shelters must be breathable. From wooden bars or metal rods construct a frame similar to a hut. Then on this basis they put and fix the warming material: lapnik, lutrasil or pieces of slate. In the spring shelter is removed gradually, focusing on the weather forecast. This will save rhododendron from frost or sunburn. Reproduction Care and reproduction of rhododendrons

Care and reproduction of rhododendrons

Rhododendrons are propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering, dividing the bushes, grafting. Sowing seeds

Seeds can propagate natural species of rhododendrons, and hybrids only vegetatively.

Boxes with ripened seeds are harvested in late October - early November. Sowing start in February - early March. Prepare small pots or bowls with a height of 5-6 cm and loose soil. Suitable peat mixed with river sand. Seeds of rhododendron are photosensitive, so they are not buried deep, but laid out on the ground surface. The crops are moistened with water from a spray bottle and covered with glass. For germination seeds need light, air temperature 15-18 ° C, regular watering without over-wetting and airing. Shoots appear in 10-14 days. When the seedlings grow, they dive. The seedling develops slowly, in the first year the growth will be no more than 10 cm. Seedlings are planted in a permanent place in 2 years, and flowering occurs in 5-7 years. cutting

All species, varieties and hybrids breed by cuttings. For rooting, take the apical half-woody shoots of the current year. Deciduous rhododendrons are grafted in mid-June, evergreens at the end of October. From the bushes, cuttings of 5-10 cm in length are cut, 2-3 leaves are left on top, the remaining leaves are removed. The prepared shoots are treated with a root formation stimulator, and then planted with the substrate. The soil must be prepared in advance to prevent the bottom cuts to dry. After rooting, young plants are transplanted to the garden bed. Reproduction by layering

This is a simple and easy way. It is especially convenient to propagate low-growing species and varieties with creeping shoots. In the spring or at the beginning of summer, the lower young shoots bend down to the ground and are laid in 5-10 cm deep grooves. The middle of the shoot is secured with a pin and covered with loose sour soil. The upper part of the shoot, which remained on the surface, is tied to a vertical support. Cuttings are regularly watered together with the mother bush, and the following year the rooted shoot can be separated and transplanted to a permanent place. The division of the bush

Most often overgrown bushes are divided in early spring and combine it with transplanting. With a sharp spade, the mother bush is cut into delenki, leaving a shoot and some of the roots on each. Vaccination

This method requires accuracy and skill. For grafting rhododendron, simple methods of copulation, improved copulation, side grafting in the cut or in the butt are suitable. The essence of the vaccine is to attach the graft shoot to the stock. When they grow together they form a single plant. Rhododendrons can be planted in early spring, summer, autumn. It is best to take a stock from 3-5 summer bushes of species rhododendrons: yellow, Japanese, Smirnov rhododendron, Katevbinsky. For the scion take annual shoots, not fully lignified, with young upper leaves. Inoculation is performed closer to the root neck of the stock. When planted in the ground, the grafting site is buried in the ground. After a few years, the roots of the rootstock are formed above this place. Pests and diseases

Of the diseases most troubles rhododendron deliver root rot. For prevention with the onset of spring heat, the above-ground part should be treated with special preparations, for example, Fitosporin M, and colloidal sulfur should be introduced into the soil. At the first signs of the disease apply Bordeaux liquid.

Also, rhododendron is affected by rust and leaf spot. In the fight against these diseases use fungicides.

Among the pests, the main enemies of rhododendrons are the spider mite and rhododendron bug.

Spider mite breeds in hot and dry summers. A microscopic insect settles in the lower part of the leaves, covering them with thin cobwebs. Leaves wither, turn brown and fall off.

The rhododendron bug is a dark brown insect with transparent wings. Like the spider mite, the bug is active in dry and sunny weather. Parasitic on the back of the sheet.

In the fight against pests using biological and chemical drugs. If the pests are not completely destroyed, then repeated treatments are carried out with an interval of 5-7 days. During flowering, in order not to harm the beneficial insect pollinators, it is better not to use chemistry.

Rhododendrons are good in both single and group plantings. They adorn alpine hills, Japanese gardens. They make beautiful borders and hedges.

More information about the cultivation of rhododendrons, you will learn by watching the video.

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