Any seedlings should not only be properly grown, but also properly placed in the ground. In addition, the important role played by careful preparation of the soil, followed by planting cabbage, radish or onions. In this article, we'll talk about the features of planting cabbage, from growing or selecting seedlings and ending with its transplanting into open ground. p> Features of the selection and disembarkation of seedlings
If you do not grow cabbage from seeds, but prefer to buy ready-made seedlings, remember some rules. First, you need to choose chunky stumpy and strong, avoiding the stems with black threads - they talk about the disease of the vegetable. Secondly, do not take seedlings that have swollen nodules - this indicates the defeat of the whale. p>
How to plant cabbage seedlings? To start, we select only good and healthy bushes, which have at least five sturdy sheets. Bury these bush in the ground to the rosette, while it is important that the roots do not remain on the surface. After planting the land should be compacted, and then watered. p> Features of care
Cabbage is a very demanding vegetable, so care for it should be thorough. First, you need to prepare the manure - one square meter will require 10 kg of manure and several tablespoons of mineral fertilizers, after which the ground needs to be dug. Since it is not always possible to plant cabbages correctly, very often seedlings are planted there, where it grew last year. This is fundamentally wrong, because in the earth there will accumulate pathogens of different diseases, larvae will appear that will harm the roots. To avoid this, you need to cover the planted seedlings, for example with a transparent hood. p>
To get strong seedlings, you need to do the proper preparation of nutrient soil mixture, then plant cabbage. In order to do this, it is advisable to prepare the ground in autumn: mix along the turf and humus, add ashes (one tablespoon per kilogram of land) and mix the substrate thoroughly. The ash will allow to soil the soil with micro- and macronutrients, and also serve as a good antiseptic, due to which black seedling will not appear on the seedlings. p> Which varieties to choose?
If you want to get vegetables as early as possible, pay attention to the varieties "Polar", "June" or "Gribovskaya", in August ripe "Hope" and "Belorusskaya", but the latest varieties - "Amager" or "Moscow". In this case, do not forget - cabbage for seedlings should be strong and powerful. By the way, it is not necessary to be limited to white cabbage. For example, no less delicious and useful kohlrabi - this variety can be planted in the corner of the hotbed, and then plant the bushes in about 20 days already on the bed. p> Cooking seeds
Cultivation of cabbage seeds is also a long process. Its success depends on how good the quality of the planting material is chosen. In case you come across incorrectly stored or counterfeit seeds, the harvest should not be expected. That's why even before planting the seeds, you should check them for germination. To do this, they can be wrapped in a damp cloth, then leave the days for 5. After that, the seeds are placed in cold water and soaked in a solution of nitrofoss and water. p>
To achieve the cold resistance of seeds, you need to put them in the refrigerator and store at a temperature of -1 degree. Many people are interested in planting cabbage on seedlings. It is worth noting that the timing here is different - it depends on the variety. For example, early varieties can be planted as early as March 15, and mid-late - from April 10. Seeds are planted in the soil mixture, which is prepared in advance. Add 2 tablespoons to the ground. wood ash and a spoonful of superphosphate. Then the soil is poured into the box, grooves 1 cm deep at a distance of 10 cm from each other are made in it. The seeds lightly fall asleep, after which the ground must be poured. After the seedlings are well developed - the stem will be 5 mm thick, at least 5 leaves will appear on it - we plant cabbage in the open ground. p> Best neighbors
From a well-chosen neighborhood with other vegetables, cabbage will grow much better. Many gardeners can not decide where to plant cabbage. To begin with it is worth saying that it is worth sticking to a few rules: p> The best predecessors for this vegetable are beans, cereals, root crops and cucumbers. You can not grow cabbage for two or three years in a row in the same place. The ground for cabbage should be fertile and structured, and therefore the ideal option is a loam, in which there is a lot of humus and which retains moisture well. The soil must be neutral.
Experts say that the right combination of crops in the garden is the guarantee that the harvest will be great. This is due to the fact that different plants (vegetables, berries) can have adverse effects on their neighbors, for example, taking away useful substances or causing metabolic disorders. It is noteworthy that cabbage along with cucumbers, tomatoes, pumpkin, celery and onions takes a lot of nutrients from the earth. Therefore, the question of what to plant cabbage, remains relevant. p>
Gardeners also adhere to the next rule when planting seedlings: ideally, a neighborhood of plants with a long root structure and those cultures that do not have pronounced roots ideally. Such a planting contributes to the fact that plants do not compete for nutrients and water. You can not plant cabbage next to spinach, since the latter requires frequent watering, and for cabbage it is enough and in the measure of dry land. p>
p> Prepare the site in advance
If the soil is acidic, then it should be prepared in autumn. For this, when digging, add lime-lime, which can be replaced by dolomite flour or powdered chalk. One square meter will require about a glass or two of powder. The bed should be dug in autumn and spring, add organic and mineral substances to it, then plant cabbage. The best variant of soil fertilization is a random one, however, it is very expensive. Do not forget that cabbage is very sensitive to organic fertilizers contained in the ground. However, one can not do without them, so it is worthwhile to fertilize the soil competently. p>
So, on poorly cultivated soil should be added manure - depending on the type of land. In spring, you can fertilize the land with compost or manure from the calculation of 3-4 kg per square meter of the site. If the fertilizer is small, you can make them immediately when you land in each hole, then plant the seedlings. p> When and how to plant?
As already mentioned, this process should be carried out depending on the type of variety. Early cabbage can be planted from the end of April to the first week of May, and late in the month, late varieties can be planted. It is noteworthy that the time when cabbage is planted varies in different regions of the country depending on the climatic zone. p>
The landing technology also has certain features: p> Early varieties are planted as follows: between the rows there should be a distance of 45 cm, and in the row the distance should be about 25 cm. When planting late varieties, the distance is longer: between rows - 60 cm, between bushes - 35 cm.
To know at what distance cabbage should be planted, it is important that the vegetables develop well and do not interfere with each other during the tying of the head. The very process of planting seedlings also has a number of nuances. Firstly, it should be planted in cloudy weather, and if it's hot, then only in the afternoon. Second, deepen the seedlings to the first real leaf. Thirdly, to improve the adhesion of bushes in the first 5-6 days, sprinkle cabbage from the watering can. Fourth, to avoid burns of cabbage leaves, you should plant bushes in shaded places. p> Features of care: watering and loosening
To grow cabbage, it is important to pay great attention to this process. Immediately after planting, watering should be thorough - every couple of days the first two weeks, with one square meter you need at least 7-8 liters of water. Then, watering can be done less often - once a week, about 10 liters per square meter of beds. The loosening process also plays an important role. If it has rained, the soil should be loosened approximately to a depth of 8 cm, and loosened every 6 days. Three weeks after planting the seedlings, the first hilling is performed in the ground, and another 10 days later - the second. During this process, It is important not to touch the base of the head and roots. p> Do not forget about fertilizing
To grow cabbage good and strong, it is important to do her feeding. So, to begin with, we do everything we can to make vegetables grow greener and grow faster. To do this, 20 days after the landing, you need to start feeding up the seedlings. By the way, for all the time of growth and development of cabbage, top dressing should be performed no less than three to four times. For the first time, we create the following solution: take 10 liters of water and dilute in it 2 tablespoons. fertilizer (for example, the drug "Effeton"). Top dressing is performed at the rate of about half a liter per bush. p>
After the lapse of 10 days after the first feeding, the second time comes. To do this, again in 10 liters of water, we breed half a liter of mullein or chicken manure, where we add a tablespoon of Kemir fertilizer. For one plant, we need about a liter of solution. These two feeding are needed when planting both early and late varieties of cabbage. p>
Gardener guides third season in June. To do this, take 10 liters of water and 2 tablespoons. superphosphate, and also a tablespoon of potassium sulfate. For each square meter you need to pour about 7 liters of the composition. The fourth top dressing should be carried out in August: we make a composition of 10 liters of water and a tablespoon of nitrophosphite and consume about 8 liters per square meter. Do not forget about the pests in the form of snails, aphids and slugs. With them you can fight with wood ash - one glass per square meter. p> We plant cabbage in the soil: the features of the process
Cabbage of late varieties, as a rule, is grown outdoors, though, and this process, seeming simple, really needs to be carefully verified. And for planting in the spring, not seedlings, but seeds are used. Before sowing, it is necessary to loosen the soil well, carefully remove it from weeds, and then sow the seeds - to a depth of about 3 cm. The peculiarity of growing in the open ground is that it is necessary to monitor the appearance of the first shoots. The problem is that they can be attacked by fleas, so you need to take care of the protection of the bushes in advance. How to do it? p>
Firstly, shoots should be inspected regularly. If you suddenly notice on the cabbage leaves a hole, it's time to act. First, we treat the site with ashes, although it is better to do this with moist soil. Effective use of infusions based on garlic, onions, tobacco dust. Secondly, plants can be covered with a film in advance, by conducting parallel treatment with chemicals. Thirdly, planted in the open ground cabbage requires a sufficient amount of moisture. This is explained by the fact that because of the large leaf surface, too much water evaporates. With a lack of moisture yield will decrease, so ideally you need to know how to plant cabbage: do it best in low reliefs or near water bodies. Fourth, the moisture should not be too much, otherwise the cabbage will stop growing, become rotten. Accordingly, the crop can not be dreamed of. p> From whom to protect cabbage?
It is worth remembering that any mistakes in care - incorrect or missed watering or poor airing - will affect the appearance of various diseases. The most popular disease is the black leg, which can be controlled with a substrate based on wood ash. It is possible to fight root rot with the help of root treatment with the help of "Trichodermin" and "Rizoplan". These drugs are characterized by biological purity, so they do not have any harmful effect on seedlings. Due to the processing, the first of them around the roots creates a zone protected from microorganisms, and the drug "Rizoplan" allows the seedlings to assimilate iron, which means that they will have immunity to the black leg. Sadly, "Trichodermin" should be added to the soil mixture, then plant cabbage. p> Cabbage can be different: Beijing, Brussels and color ...
In the main part of the article we told about the peculiarities of cabbage - the preparation of soil for its sowing, the cultivation of seedlings and its further planting in the soil, the peculiarities of nursing. However, in addition to white cabbage, many today plant and such varieties as color, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi or broccoli. Despite the fact that the basic rules for the cultivation of different varieties are approximately the same, there are also nuances. p>
For example, Peking and Chinese cabbage should be planted directly with seeds directly into the ground, as the plants bad attitude to transplant. In addition, their product body is formed only in early spring or late autumn, that is, when the day is short. Cauliflower seedlings are very capricious and demanding on the quality of the soil: it should be planted in fertile soil saturated with manganese and boron. In this seedling should suffice and moisture, and heat. But too much temperatures of cauliflower are harmful, as well as over-dried ground. p>
The peculiarity of Brussels sprouts is in a high stem, on which leaves are formed in the axils of the leaves - there can be up to 90 of them. The vegetation period of this vegetable is almost 160 days, so it is planted mainly in seedlings. For seedlings, seeds must be sown in the 20th of April in open nurseries. As early as day 5 emerges, so at this time they need to be treated with ash or tobacco dust to protect the seedlings from the cruciferous flea. p>
p> ... kohlrabi and broccoli
These varieties of cabbage are sown not so often, but still there are plenty of lovers. Broccoli has a loose head, painted from green to purple. This variety is less demanding compared to cauliflower. However, the seeds should be prepared before planting. To do this, they are placed in hot water for 15 minutes, then in the cold for a minute, and then for 12 hours in a solution of trace elements. After that, the seeds need to be washed and dried. The area under the broccoli should be prepared as early as autumn, adding lime to the ground. But under the cabbage itself, fertilizer should be introduced in the spring: it can be organic matter, superphosphate, wood ash or urea. p>
If broccoli is grown with seedlings, a soil mixture consisting of peat, turf and sand in a combination of 1: 1: 1 will be required. Use old land from the garden is undesirable, because it can be infected with a black leg. After sowing the seeds, one should strive to keep the temperature at about 20 degrees, and when sprouts appear, the temperature can be reduced to 10 degrees. It is important not to wet the substrate, otherwise the seedling can get sick. At the age of two weeks shoots dive, but in the open ground seedlings can be planted gradually, so that she gets used to sunlight, wind and temperature changes. p>
Kolrabi is a juicy and tender stalk. This cabbage can be early, as well as medium and late ripening. To obtain early varieties you need seedlings, you can plant it already at the end of April. As soon as several real leaves appear, the seedlings can be planted in the soil. If you grow kohlrabi without seedlings, the seeds should be sown in two or three sets, with the interval should be at least 20 days. The optimal time for this is mid-June-early August. This variety of cabbage should be constantly moistened: after planting seedlings, watering should be every 2-3 days. Then you can switch to watering once a week. After each moistening, the soil must be loosened to a depth of 5-8 cm. p>
Cabbage is a healthy vegetable, and therefore loved by many. To grow a good crop on your site, you need very little - just to know when and how to plant the seedlings and how to prepare the soil. p>