Why take a urine test for sowing? This is a frequent question. We will understand this article. p>
All inflammations of the bladder, kidneys, urethra are ninety-five percent provoked by infectious agents, chief among which are proteus, staphylococcus and enterobacteria. They are called uropathogenic flora. To identify the source of the patient's disease is held tank. crop of urine of the patient. This method requires strict compliance with the norms of collecting urine, special equipment with environments and thermostats, as well as competent specialists. p> Where are they held?
Urine analyzes are performed on seeding in bacteriological laboratories. If necessary, they can also be done in private clinics. But more often they simply accept the material and then transfer it to a centralized institution, which has the necessary conditions. This is due to the fact that for the analysis the following conditions are necessary: p> purchase and maintenance of the latest equipment; maintaining nutrient media; the establishment of the disinfection process and the destruction of infected urine; maintaining ongoing training of specialists.
Often during transportation violated the conditions of storage of biomaterial and timeframe. Therefore, it is best to do a bacterial urine culture in a specialized institution, since the results there will be more reliable. p> When is a tank required? sowing?
If an ordinary general analysis of urine for seeding is performed, then microscopy of its sediment must be carried out, during which fungi and bacteria are detected. If their number in the field of view is too large, then this indicates bacteriuria. The main disadvantage is the absence of any information about a specific type of pathogen. p>
In a conventional laboratory, specialists will be able to differentiate visually only a small number of microbes. To conduct a more accurate differentiation, Gram stain is required, as well as microbiological studies using special microscopes. How is urine cultured on microflora? p> Ways
Modern methods include electron and luminescent microscopy, in which pathogens are illuminated with luminous dyes, or the apparatus has such a resolution, which makes it possible to discern even individual structural characteristics of a microorganism. How to pass urine? About this below. p>
For such a detailed method, it may not be necessary to plant urine on special media. However, it is in any case produced only in the microbiological department of laboratories. The doctor should be aware: p> about the cause of inflammation; about the size of the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms; sensitivity of the pathogen to those or other antibiotics.
All this information is necessary for the correct prescription of drugs, especially if the disease becomes chronic or protracted. p> Who can be useful?
The study of urine through the tank. seeding may be useful to patients with the following pathological processes: p> recurrence of cystitis; chronic urethritis; pyelonephritis and pyelitis; paranephritis.
The pathogenic flora must be detected in time in the urinary tract while monitoring the condition of people with HIV and diabetes mellitus. p> Requirements for bacteriological research of urine
To obtain reliable information on urine analysis for sowing, it is necessary to strictly adhere to a number of rules and requirements: p> It is necessary to take the test only before the start of antibiotic treatment; only morning urine is suitable for research, more precisely, its average portion; urine should not be collected from the urinal, the vessel; for the correct delivery of the material, it is necessary to use sterile containers, which can be purchased at a pharmacy or taken in a specialized laboratory; bacteriological seeding of urine is carried out for two hours after the material has been taken, it can be kept in the refrigerator for up to eight hours; if there is a suspicion of kidney tuberculosis, the study should be conducted three times, that is, for three days;
p> You need to take the urine with a catheter with the maximum limit, since during the procedure can spreadinfection.
What does a urine analysis show? We will understand. p>
A number of recommendations suggest: p> stop the use of diuretic drugs (both herbal and diuretic) in two days; exclude a week before the analysis the use of alcohol, fatty and salty foods.
Such recommendations are usual for any research that is carried out in the laboratory. However, bacteriologists believe that these tips do not have any decisive influence on the quality characteristics of the absorption of microorganisms. How to pass urine can also be clarified in the clinic. p> Is it possible to find out by analyzing the source of the infection?
To distinguish between inflammatory processes in the bladder and kidneys, a test with "Neomycin" or "Polymyxin" is carried out: after the bladder has been emptied, fifty milliliters of a solution containing antibiotics is injected into it with a catheter. Then ten minutes later, a sample of urine is taken for examination. After microscopy, you can obtain the following data: p> with complete sterility as a result of the analysis, it can be judged that inflammation occurs in the bladder; if the infection is observed in the kidneys, then bacteriuria remains, since the local effect of antibiotics did not affect the upper urinary tract. How is the collection of the average portion of the urine?
In order for the urine analysis for seeding to be as effective as possible, it is necessary to prepare in a special way the outlet of the urethra in order to avoid additional infection. p>
Women can not pass urine during menstruation and for two days after its completion. At this time, fresh blood will interfere with seeding and microscopic examination. Two days before the analysis, the use of contraceptives and drugs in the form of vaginal suppositories is not recommended. p>
It is necessary to thoroughly wash the external genitals with soap, or wipe with a napkin previously moistened in the solution of povidone-iodine. For this purpose, four tampons should be used and carried out from front to back. Then the genitals need to be washed with clean water. It is forbidden to douch in the morning to avoid diluting the urine. Often prescribed urine analysis for seeding during pregnancy. The referral is issued by an obstetrician-gynecologist. p> in men
Men are sent to the analysis by the attending physician (general practitioner or urologist), if there are clinical indications. To prevent the penetration of a genital infection, it is necessary to wash the penis, the foreskin crease, genitals with soap and water. The material is taken during urination. Urinary excretion should be delayed after the first jet, then collect the following urine in a sterile container in an amount of from twenty to fifty milliliters. p>
Young children should be washed with detergent, give them water, then sit on their knees over a sterile bag and wait for urination. p>
After the material is collected, the container must be closed. At room temperature, it can be stored for no more than two hours (including also the time of its delivery to the laboratory). If special preservatives are used, the urine is allowed to pass on the tank. study throughout the day. The urine culture rate will be presented below. p> Features of bacteriological examination
The sequence of the tank. Research urine or other material includes a number of standard manipulations: p> microscopy of the primary sediment type (can be skipped according to indications); tank. seeding urine of the primary type to isolate a pure culture of infectious pathogens; the accumulation of this culture; analysis of the biological characteristics of the isolated microorganisms;
p> the final determination of the pathogen.
All bacteriologists adhere to these stages. p>
For primary tank. Seeding should be selected environment corresponding to a particular class of pathogens. For example, sugar broth is suitable for streptococci, blood agar is suitable for staphylococcus, mushrooms need Saburo's medium. p>
Sowing can be carried out simultaneously on 2-3 environments. His technique is determined by the purpose of the analysis; the choice is made by a laboratory technician. The most common crops do: p> trowel; strokes by means of specific bacteriological hinges; soaked swab material.
You can also split the bottom of a Petri dish into separate sections and sow each of the sectors. How much is preparing a urine test on the tank. sowing? p> How are the results analyzed?
The study of the results of the analysis of the seeding of urine on bacterial media begins on the second day. This describes: p> size (from small to large); transparency; shape (right or wrong, round); color, that is, the type of color; surface features (rough, smooth or uneven); height increase (flat or depressed).
Under the microscope, one can see the structural characteristics of a bacterial colony (heterogeneous or homogeneous), uneven or even edges. In order to accumulate it, a separate colony is subcultured in a test tube with a beveled agar in it. Two days later (on the third), biochemical tests are carried out with the pure culture obtained, the bases of which are the ability to break down sugars, fats and proteins. Special test strips are also used, to which the bacterial culture is dripped and then the result is controlled. p>
All results of the identification of the pathogen are included in the decoding analysis. Based on them, the bacteriologist can conclude about the nature of the agent of infection, its significance in the occurrence of the disease. p>
If intraspecific diagnostics are required (for example, you need to find out which of the many types of staphylococcus is in the urine of a patient), you must additionally use immunological reactions. To analyze urine culture on microflora must be a qualified specialist. p> Quantitative result indicator
In order to reflect the results quantitatively, in bacteriology colony-forming units, or CFU, located in one milliliter of urine, are operated. Evaluation is carried out by their value. p>
When the indicator fluctuates from one thousand to one hundred thousand, one may suspect that the urine was collected with disturbances that affected the result, therefore, in this situation, it is better to repeat the analysis. Proper decoding of urine culture is very important. p>
Interpretation of the results serves as a characteristic of various nosological forms: p> with pyelonephritis - 1000 cfu or more; cystitis - 100 cfu.
If the CFU exceeds 100,000, then there is no need to doubt the activity of the pathogen. It is urgent to begin treatment, because this is the case with a catheter infection.
p> Buck. urine culture for antibiotic susceptibility
To determine the optimal method of therapy, you can use a culture analysis for its sensitivity to various antibiotics. Its result is also called an antibiotic. p>
What is the essence of this study? It is necessary to divide the Petri dish into parts and place in each strip or circle soaked in an antibiotic. Marking them is carried out either from the outside of the cup, or by color. p>
Pure culture is seeded in sectors. Then the cup is placed in a thermostat, which has a human body temperature, and is monitored daily. If the antibiotic is perfect, it will kill the bacteria, and there will be no growth in the sector. In the case of resistance of the pathogen, the growth of the colony will be marked. p>
To get the result, you need to wait from four to five days. Thanks to the new methods, it is possible to carry out a study in two days, and not only the sensitivity of the preparations will be determined, but also their therapeutic dose. p>
We found out what urine analysis shows for sowing. p>
Sunflower seeds under the Granstar