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Date: 14.10.2018, 21:49 / View: 42493

Just Letters and Sounds Just letters and sounds

The English alphabet has 26 letters - seven less than ours. Which already facilitates our acquaintance with English. The English Alphabet - English alphabet Aa [ei] (hey) Nn [en] (en) Bb [bi:] (bi :) Oo [ou] (ou) Cc [si:] (si :) Pp [pi:] (pi :) Dd [di:] (di :) Qq [kju:] (kyu :) Her [i:] (and :) Rr [ɑ:] (a :) Ff [ef] (ef ) Ss [es] (es) Gg [ʤi:] (ji :) Tt [ti:] (ty :) Hh [eiʧ] (h) Uu [ju:] (u :) Ii [ai] (ai) Vv [vi:] (vi :) Jj [ʤei] (jay) Ww ['dʌblju:] (double :) Kk [kei] (key) Xx [eks] (ex) Ll [el] (el) Yy [wai ] (Wye) Mm [em] (Um) Zz [zed] (Zed)

The square brackets indicate how each letter of the English alphabet is pronounced. In the standard British version of the language, the letter R is sometimes not “spoken out” at all: car [kɑ:] (car), star [stɑ:] (star), door [do:] (door). In America, as, indeed, in some parts of England, this letter sounds - it growls dully - and if you wish, you can safely say it: arm [ɑ: rm] (hand), form [fo: rm] (form, form) , turn [tǝ: rn] (rotate).

If you see a dotted line under the text, it means that there is a hint for this text. In this case, this is an approximate (≈) Russian pronunciation, represented in the English alphabet by parentheses. And now attention! Your task for this lesson is to learn to read as it is written in square brackets and not in round ones! Pronunciation in parentheses is given only to those who first become acquainted with the English language. Immediately after meeting with all the sounds below, they will not. And if someone teaches you to read somewhere in Russian transcription, be aware that you are being deceived. Below will be given the text, audio, video explanations of each sound.

The alphabet needs to be learned by heart. Why? It happens, we are not sure how this or that name is spelled correctly and we have to clarify:

Spell your name. - Spell your name.
Spell it, please. - Spell it, please.

And the interlocutor, whose name is, suppose, Timothy, or, in short, Tim, dictates to us:

Timothy - [ti:] [ai] [em] [ou] [ti:] [eiʧ] [wai]

Additionally to fix the English alphabet:
Word - Word

Spell is a useful verb that helps us spell out any word, even the "catchy" one. There is in England the city of Leicester. There are five sounds in the title: ['lestə]. Let's try to find it on the English map. Where is it? Check with our friend Tim:

How do you spell it? - How do you write it?
Spell this name for us. - Spell us the name.

Tim spells the name. We write it down. We write:

[el] [i:] [ai] [si:] [i:] [es] [ti:] [i:] [ɑ:] - Leicester.

There are only five sounds, but nine letters! There are nine letters in Leicester. Historically, some of the letters in this title have become "dumb."

Tim will name a few more cities, and you write them - right here in the lines. [el] [ou] [en] [di:] [ou] [en] [wai] [ou] [ɑ:] [kei] [em] [ei] [en] [si:] [ eiʧ] [i:] [es] [ti:] [i:] [ɑ:] Notes - Notes

Names (Ann, Tim), names of continents (Africa, Asia), countries (England, Russia), cities (Bristol, York), villages (Pendrift), streets (Oxford Street), squares (Trafalgar Square) and lanes (Penny Lane ) written with a "big" letter. Your Dictionary
Your dictionary

Your dictionary is English-Russian, it contains English words with Russian translation. They are strictly alphabetical.

Let's find the translation of the word please - in the section under the letter R. Some simple rules:

1. In order not to read the entire section from beginning to end, we look at the second letter of the word - l. The alphabetic principle again operates: the letter combination pl comes after the combinations pa, re, ph, pi. Here come the words to pl: place [pleis] (place), plain [plein] (plain) ... It was the turn to look at the third letter e. Then at the fourth a. And after a pleasant ['plezǝnt] (pleasant), but before pleasure [' plel] (pleasure) we find the word we need.

2. After please, there is an abbreviation v, after pleasant - a What kind of "secret writing"? The answer is an explanation at the very beginning of the dictionary - in the List of conditional abbreviations. The letter n denotes noun (noun); v - verb (verb); a - adjective (adjective); adv - adverb (adverb).
These pointers are not to load you with grammatical terms. There are in Englishcases where the same word can be a noun or verb, adjective or adverb. The dictionary will tell you what part of it is, and then give a translation.

help [help] 1. v help. 2. n help; assistant.
fast [fɑːst] 1. and fast, fast. 2. adv fast.

3. Nouns in all dictionaries are given in the singular. boy [boi] n boy dad [dæd] n dad dog [dog] n dog home [houm] n house

Some words are not singular. This is indicated by the letters pl: from plural.

clothes [kləuðz] n pl clothes
scissors ['sɪzəz] n pl scissors

Fortunately, it is rare that the word "looks" as in the plural, but in fact it is in the singular. The dictionary will not allow you to make a mistake: sing means singular (singular). For example, news [nju: z] (as used to sing) news, news.

4. Verbs give a stem from which other verb forms are formed - in particular, past tense. do [duː] v do help [help] v help go [gəu] v go play [plei] v play

5. A word can have two or more meanings, so do not rush to take a translation that goes “first in the list”. Let's say a noun is translated as a letter or a letter. Let’s read two sentences: the first one deals with letters, the second one about letters.

There are twenty-six letters in the English alphabet. - In the English alphabet, twenty-six letters.

We write and get letters. - We write and receive letters.

6. It is useful to look through all the explanations for the paragraph in which the right word is located. Let's quickly run through his eyes, and something will be "deposited" in the memory.
Let's look at that paragraph (the nest, as the dictionary compilers call it), in which the word look [luk] "nests". The first meaning is to look. The second is to look. And additional information: look in combination with after it matters to take care (of someone), look after (for someone). The combination look for translates to search.
After some time, you come across a text with these combinations and, quite possibly, you will translate it from memory without looking into the dictionary.

I look at my sister. - I'm looking at my sister.
She looks fine. “She looks great.
I look after my sister. - I take care of my sister.
She looks for her doll. - She is looking for her doll.

7. The dictionary gives in square brackets transcription, that is, pronunciation. Only through vocabulary transcription, we learn that, for example, London (London) is pronounced ['lʌndǝn], a Leicester (Leicester) is read [' lestǝ] and nothing else does.
If there is one syllable in the word, no stress mark is placed in the transcription, it is not necessary. man [mæn] n man sea [si:] n sea help [help] v help room [rum] n room

If two or more syllables are pronounced, the stress is necessarily indicated, and the sign stands before the stressed syllable.

alphabet ['ælfəbət] n alphabet
England ['ɪŋglənd] n England
English ['ɪŋglɪʃ] and English
tomorrow [tə'mɔrəu] n tomorrow

In Russian, the vowel length does not matter. In English, pronounce a long sound twice as short as you can hear it. Otherwise, the fist will turn into a feast, and the pot into a port. The longitude of a vowel sound is indicated by a [ː] or simply a colon. fist [fist] n fist feast [fi: st] n feast, holiday lid [lid] n cover lead [li: d] n leash pot [pɔt] n pot port [pɔ: t] n port

Transcription is especially necessary when there are letter combinations that are written in the same way, but are pronounced differently. As for example, in these pairs of words: so [səu] adv so do [du:] v do few [fju:] and little sew [səu] v sew beak [bi: k] n beak break [breɪk] v break

Click the red button on the right to watch the video.
Also, do not forget to point to the tips highlighted by a dotted line.
A different spelling of one sound is given through a fraction, i.e. for example, dictionaries may contain both [i] and [ɪ] :) Vowels - Vowels [æ] cat (cat), carry (carry) , rat (rat), dad [dæd], man (man, man)

Note: This sound does not correspond to Russian E. If someone teaches you this, you are cruelly deceived. Point on the left hint for details. [ɑ:] harm, far (far), class (class)
[i:] he (he), meal (food), tree (tree)
[i] / [ɪ] it (it), sit (sit), ticket (ticket)
[e] / [ɛ] best (best), mend (repair), pen (pen)
[o] / [ɔ] coffee (coffee), not (not), rock ( rock)
[about:] / [ɔː] morning (morning), ball (ball), small (small)
[u] / [ʊ] book (book), foot (foot), put (put)
[u:] blue (blue), move, soon (soon)
[ʌ] cup (cup), mother (mother), some (some)
[ɜː] / [ǝ:] third (third), work (work), learn (learn)
[ǝ] teacher (teacher), Saturday (Saturday)

In addition to the lesson, the famous lion Leo invites you to try his course alphabetically and sounds (click on the lion cub to view the first section of this course, there are 4 of them) Diphthongs - Dipthongs

(combinations of two vowel sounds) [ei] / [eɪ] baby (child), say (say), train (train)
[ai] / [aɪ] ice (ice), lie (lie), my (my)
[au] / [aʊ] cloud (cloud), flower (flower), town (city)
[ou] / [ǝʊ] no (no), only (only), road (road)
[oi] / [ɔɪ] coin (coin), noise (noise), boy ( boy)
[iǝ] / [ɪǝ] ear (ear), dear (dear), here (here)
[ɛǝ] / [eǝ] air (air), bear (bear), there (there)
[uǝ] / [ʊǝ] poor (poor), sure (sure)
Consonants - Consonants [b] back (back), husband (husband), rib (rib)
[p] past (past), open (open)
[d] day (day), dark (dark), window (window)
[t] take, tree, hot (hot)
[k] king (king), cold (cold), sick (sick)
[g] get (receive), bag (bag), girl (girl)
[v] very (very), have (never)
[f] fifteen (fifteen), wife (wife), phrase (phrase)
[z] zero (zero), maze (labyrinth), rose (rose)
[s] so (so), basket (basket), city (city)
[θ] thin (thin), think (think), nothing (nothing)
[ð] this (this), together (together), father (father)
[ʃ] ship, fish (fish), Russian (Russian)
[ʒ] leisure, garage (garage), mirage (mirage)
[ʧ] chair (chair), each (each), much (many)
[ʤ] judge (judge), age (age), language (language)
[h] hat (hat), unhappy (unlucky)
[l] like (love), pull (pull), last (last)
[m] make (make), meet (meet), summer (summer)
[n] never (never), line (line), round (round)
[ŋ] song (song), thing (thing), reading (reading)
[r] red (red), every, marry (marry)
[w] well (well), woman (woman), what (what)
[j] yes (yes), onion (bow), Italian (Italian)
Notes - Notes

1. Double consonants in English words are pronounced as one sound. grass [grɑ: s] n grass bitter ['bitǝ] and bitter carry [' kæri] v carry the winner ['winǝ] n winner

2. Unlike Russian, English voiced consonants at the end of the word do not become deaf. For example, the word rub [rʌb] should sound clear [b]. In the word good [gud], also clearly pronounce the sound [d], and in the word dog [dog] the sound [g]. Conversation - Conversation

I want to talk as soon as possible. And to start a conversation in English, hello [hǝ'lou] is best suited. This greeting corresponds to the Russian hello, hello, hello.

Hello, boys and girls. - Hello, boys and girls.
Hello, everybody. - Hello everyone.

Use hello in a conversation with close relatives, friends, classmates.

Hello, Mum. - Hello, Mom.
Hello, Dad. - Hello, Dad.
Hello, Nick! Hello, Tim! - Hi, Nick! Hi Tim!

Say hello, calling to someone on the street, drawing attention to yourself, or answering a phone call.

Hello! - Hey!
Hello - Hello. Discussion - Discussion

English dad [dæd] and mum [mʌm] correspond to our father and mother. When talking about your own parents, these words become like names and are capitalized: Mum, Dad. There is a more affectionate appeal: Mummy ['mʌmi] (mommy), Daddy [' dædi] (daddy).
In more formal cases, father ['fɑ: ðǝ] (father) and mother [' mʌðǝ] (mother) are used. Exercises - Exercises

Exercise 1. Arrange the words in alphabetical order.

Dog, girl, go, acorn, tree, and, spell, sit, dad, conversation, well, he, what, take, egg, make, sorry, little, big, wife, question, word.
Key

Exercise 2. Spell these words. - Spell these words.

Father, money, which, quarter, seem, jam, gust, peck, next, zebra, capital.

Exercise 3. In the famous book "Alice Through the Looking Glass" the chess White Queen boasts to Alice that she knows the ABC and can read words from one letter.

The White Queen says, "I know the ABC. I can read words of one letter."

Words from one letter are very rare things, for example, article a. Words of two and three letters - much more, for example, go (go), do (do), in (in), and (and), but (but).

In the following text, without really going into its meaning, select all words from two, then from three letters.

London is a big city. It is very old. It lies on the River Thames. The history of London goes back to Roman times. London has a lot of sights. There are many parks in it. London is the capital of England. The English Queen lives in London. The Queen's name is Elizabeth. 2-letter words: Key 3-letter words:  Key

Read the following words: Queen [kwi: n], Thames [temz], Elizabeth [ɪ'lɪzəbəθ], Roman ['roumǝn], sight [sait], many [' menɪ], park [pɑ: k].

Write out from the dictionary the meanings of the following words: capital a; n date n; v name n; v park n; v Roman a; n sight n; v Key Phrases - Phrases

Saying goodbye, the British say:

Good bye. - Goodbye.
Bye! - Bye!
See you later. - See you later.
See you tomorrow. - Till tomorrow.

P.S. Small explanations for newbies: In the lesson there is a description of the dictionary and an exercise for working with the dictionary. There is no dictionary on the site, only lesson vocabulary in the following lessons. You should have your own dictionary, whether it's paper or electronic, but you should have one. From the electronic recommended Lingvo X5 / X6, Lingvo Live site. Google translator is not a dictionary, it can guess the correct translation, or it may not guess, inexperienced not to use it. In this English alphabet lesson ’you only need to be able to correctly read and play sounds. Words begin to memorize with the following lessons. Lessons are free! Additional lessons, incl. interactive, also free, but their number (free) is limited. Update / change your browser if you experience problems with your audio player. They arise only on something obsolete. To go to the next lesson, click "Next>" below to the right or select a lesson from the menu at the top right. On mobile devices, the right menu falls to the bottom under the comments.


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